WINGO: My identification, it says, "The bearer of this note Esther Wingo," that's me, "has been employed by me," who's Mr. Marshall, have you spoke with him?


WINGO: Okay. As an interview for the above named project. And the project is an Afro-American History project.

CARTER: Mm-hmm.

WINGO: What we do is, we try to find out, what, what made people, Black Am- Afro Americans come to Ypsi and settle down in Ypsi, Ypsilanti. What drew them to-to settle here, and what their relationship was with um, between the blacks and the whites early on. Okay?

CARTER: Mm-hmm.

WINGO: And this is just so that you know

CARTER: Mm-hmm.

WINGO: why, uh, why I’m here. It’s my identification, [ ]

CARTER: Mm-hmm.

WINGO: Just let anyone in. Okay so we collect the items, ones of historical importance, we put them in the Ypsilanti Historical Museum.



WINGO: And that's things like, uh, letters, family pictures.

CARTER: Mm-hmm.

WINGO: Those type things.

CARTER: Mm-hmm.

WINGO: And what we want our research to do is to strengthen the, uh, black community.

CARTER: Mm-hmm.

WINGO: And we wanted to-to interview you because we knew that you have been here for a long time.

CARTER: Mm-hmm.

WINGO: And kind of like a landmark ...

CARTER: [Laughs].

WINGO: We want to, we want to see what, what we can get from you. What kind of information.

CARTER: Mm-hmm.

WINGO: Okay, this right here is the interviewee agreement. And it says, 'I am hereby granting permission to interviewers for the Ypsilanti Afro-American History Project to record my thoughts on magnetic tape. It's my understanding that I will have an opportunity to read the transcripts of this interview and edit it before it reaches the final forms.' Anything you don't want in it you can take out.

CARTER: Mm-hmm.

WINGO: If you change your mind. 'Both the tape and my voice, and the transcript will be placed in the Ypsilanti Historical Museum and possibly the Bentley 2:00Historical Museum for the use by scholars in studying the history of Ypsilanti. I therefore- by make no claims for...[ ], either now or in the future but leave this record as a contribution to understanding those concerns with the history of the community [ ].' Okay then what I need you to do is to sign this if you agree with it. That I can interview you on tape and that this can be placed in the museum. But at anytime you can change your mind.

CARTER: Mm-hmm.

WINGO: Okay, and then if you would sign right there and I'll sign there stating [ ]. [LONG PAUSE] Okay, that’s taken care of. Okay now uh, I'll ask you a 3:00question. Okay, um we get this card that tells us a little bit about the person that we're going to interview. And on it, it says that you've been here since 1904.

CARTER: Mm-hmm.

WINGO: Um, could you tell me why, um, you came here? You came with your father right? What's the [ ]?

CARTER: Well my father used to be here when he was a boy. His father lived, I mean his brother lived here. And Detroit was all right but we lived in [ ], okay.

WINGO: Mm-hmm.

CARTER: And he wanted to come some place where we could get a better education.



CARTER: So we went to Detroit and stayed for a little while [COUGHS]. And then we came out here and his brother lived out here.

WINGO: Can you tell me where you lived out here? Is it, is the house still standing by any chance?

CARTER: Mm-hmm. Do you know, uh, Glenna Starks?

WINGO: Lenna Starks, Glenna?

CARTER: Glenna Starks, right, she lived right back of the, uh, Baptist church.


CARTER: On Adams. Old white house [ ], the white house on Adams.

WINGO: A white house? You wouldn't know the address, would you?

CARTER: No, I never looked at the house number.

WINGO: Oh, [maybe I could look]

CARTER: But it couldn’t be in, see, you go this way from the Baptist Church and it's right on this corner right here.

WINGO: By which Baptist Church? [ ]

CARTER: Second Baptist Church.

WINGO: Ah. It's still there.


WINGO: We're also trying to locate where people lived at.


CARTER: Mm-hmm.

WINGO: Where the majority of black people lived at this time. And it's kind of amazing to see that the houses are still there. [Okay]. How long have you lived in this house?

CARTER: In this house?

WINGO: Nice house.

CARTER: Little over ten years.

WINGO: Oh…Okay, um-

CARTER: See, I, I was married and my husband died, and we had a large house, down on South Huron Street. [ ] we had garden space, yard space in the house. We did have some renters, and uh, but it was too much, too much for me to take care of.

WINGO: Okay, can you tell me a little bit about your husband? Your marriage to him, how things were back then?


CARTER: Well, I didn't get married until um, [ ] 15 years. And uh, see, I used to nurse, and I worked for Dr. Dickerson [ ]

WINGO: Mm-hmm.

CARTER: and, uh, I worked there until the [ ] I didn’t have that job. So then I went to Ann Arbor, the hospital in Ann Arbor.

WINGO: Oh U of, the University of Michigan Hospital?

CARTER: Uh, yeah, mm-hmm, and, um, I had I to quit to go home to take care of my mother because she was sick and [she passed and I never went back]. [ ] [And Mr. Carter] [ ] started taking me to church. And he popped the question, said, [‘Why don’t we get married?’]

WINGO: [Laughs] Oh that’s [sweet]

CARTER: So we did. And he’s been gone about 10 years,



CARTER: and I sold the house there because [ ] take care of it. [ ] Found this place [ ]

WINGO: Nice, this is a pretty nice sized house.

CARTER: Yes, it's a nice little place.

WINGO: [It is].

CARTER: It's a very [ ] kitchen, you know. And then I have a room here for [ ] my sewing [ ].

WINGO: It's good to keep active. Uh, how old were you when you got married?

CARTER: How old was I when I got married? Let me see...I don't really [ ]. Right now, I can't tell you exactly, but we was married about 25 years.


CARTER: Do you know Vida Vest, she’s a teacher.

WINGO: What's the name?

CARTER: Vida Vest.

WINGO: Vida Vast?

CARTER: Vest. V-e-s-t.


CARTER: That's his daughter. He was married before, his first wife died. [ ] We 8:00got married.

WINGO: Do you have any-

CARTER: [She used to teach here now. She used to teach here, too.] She, uh, lives in Ann Arbor now.

WINGO: Do you have any children?


WINGO: No? Okay.

CARTER: Just his children [laughs].

WINGO: That's good, that you consider them your children. Um…could you tell me a little about your father? We were told, I was told that you came here with your father, right? In 1904, is that true?

CARTER: Mh-hmm. My father was here before that, um, when he was a young man.

WINGO: Mm-hmm.

CARTER: Young boy, I guess you’d call it. His brother lived here, Charlie Starks. And, uh... then, uh, he went to Canada, lived in Canada for a while. [ ] 9:00stayed in Detroit for a while, he had a sister in Detroit. And uh, we stayed in Detroit for a [ ] [Ypsilanti] [so he came out here and he found a place] [ ] [moved out here, finished up high school and went to Eastern Michigan].

WINGO: Oh you went to, that’s where I go.


WINGO: I go to Eastern.

CARTER: Oh, do you?

WINGO: So you probably remember it [ ]

CARTER: [ ] [Laughs]

WINGO: Remember what, Is the high school, I mean, and the elementary school that you went to still here? Here in Ypsi?

CARTER: Ypsilanti High School is down on the block, and uh...between Washington and Adams.


WINGO: Ahh…Your family's been here for a pretty good while. Do you remember-

CARTER: ... He was here when he was a boy.

WINGO: Goes way back.

CARTER: Mm-hmm.

WINGO: Do you remember any stories your father used to tell you?

CARTER: About what?

WINGO: About Ypsi, or your, your family coming here, or any of your ancestors, anything that really stuck in your mind?

CARTER: Well [ ]

WINGO: Okay, since you have been here a while, do you remember any political people, or did you personally know any outstanding leaders?

CARTER: Dr. Dickerson. He had a [clinical] hospital in his residence and I used to work for him. [After he passed I went to Ann Arbor and worked in the hospital 11:00there], then my mother got sick and I had to take [ ] and she died [ ].

WINGO: Oh, your mother lived in Ypsi?

CARTER: Yeah, Mm-hmm.

WINGO: Oh, she lived in this same area?

CARTER: No, no. No, no, we lived [ ] on, uh, Forest Avenue, right up from, uh, River Street. There's an alley right there now, [ ] there's an alley that goes along River Street, there's an alley that goes along [ ] [and the house, it’s a white house] [ ] [that’s where we lived].

WINGO: Oh, all the houses that you lived in are still here.


WINGO: I guess when you go by those houses, they bring some memories to you.

CARTER: Well, I don't get past there very often.


CARTER: If you don't have a car, you don't get to places like that.

WINGO: I know.

CARTER: Mm-hmm.

WINGO: I don't have a car.


CARTER: [ ] They don't take you everywhere.

WINGO: That's true [laughs], and buses. Do you have any brothers or sisters?

CARTER: I have a sister right down the street, Martha Neely. You know Mary Louise Foley?

WINGO: The name sounds familiar.

CARTER: She works for the city.

WINGO: Sounds familiar.

CARTER: She had some boys. Uh, she has [ ] daughters.

WINGO: She related to you, or something?

CARTER: My niece!


CARTER: my sister's daughter.

WINGO: That’s nice, your family's right in here then.

CARTER: Mh-hmm.

WINGO: Are you close?

CARTER: Well, yeah, mh-hmm. I uh, walked around this way and I saw this house, and I said, ‘[Oh Lord, I think I like this house]’ [ ] ‘don’t sell it til I talk to the people that own it cause I think I want it.’ Then I had [ ]


WINGO: [ ]…good job.

CARTER: [ ] made it nice and warm.

WINGO: Yeah, that warm feeling [when you come in]

CARTER: Mm-hmm.

WINGO: [It’s really nice]…Um, when, when you were growing up, what was it like, what was the social life like, what type of things did you do, or what kind of groups were you in, …[ ]?

CARTER: Well, we went to, uh, [ ] school and finished there, and went to Woodruff School and finished there, and then we went to high school. After we finished high school, we went to Eastern Michigan.

WINGO: Were, were you in any kind of activity groups? Church groups or-


CARTER: Well, we used to go to Sunday School, always had to go to Sunday School

WINGO: Mm-hmm.

CARTER: and I think they had a little club, that they had, a church club.

WINGO: You don't remember the name of it?

CARTER: Uh-uh. And, uh…we sang in the club [ ].

WINGO: Oh, you were pretty active. Were there any kind of community, uh, clubs or groups that blacks were allowed to get into at that time?

CARTER: I don't know.

WINGO: Oh, okay.

CARTER: Because when I got older [ ] [going to Palm Leaf Club] [ ].

WINGO: The Palm Leaf Club?

CARTER: Palm Leaf Club, mm-hmm.

WINGO: What type of club is that?

CARTER: Well, we did quite a lot of things, but [ ] scholarship for students



CARTER: now [laughs]. We didn’t used to, but we do now.

WINGO: Is that a mostly, a black group, or?

CARTER: Yes. Mm-hmm.

WINGO: Oh, is it new, or?

CARTER: Oh no, it's 40, 45 years old, maybe older than that.

WINGO: 45?

CARTER: Maybe older than that.


CARTER: 1904, I think it's when they organized or a little before that. They use to work for the church, at first, and then later on, you know, the church got [ ] and people started doing other things, and then later on started giving the scholarship or two scholarships to students [ ].

WINGO: Have you been in the, in this club for a long time?

CARTER: Mh-hmm.

WINGO: Do you remember how long?

CARTER: I couldn’t tell you how many years.

WINGO: Did you, were you in it, when you first came here, you joined?

CARTER: Oh, no, no.

WINGO: Oh, how did you find out about it?

CARTER: My mother [ ].


WINGO: So it's like a family?

CARTER: Well, kind of.

WINGO: That's really interesting. Um, when you first came here, did you experience a lot of prejudice or anything? What was the attitudes between blacks and whites, what was it like?

CARTER: I can't tell you what it was like because we didn't live in a black neighborhood and we played with white children, [it was like we was white, too].

WINGO: Oh, so your neighborhood was mostly, was mostly white?

CARTER: Our neighborhood was, yes.

WINGO: Is there certain side of town that mostly black people lived on?

CARTER: Oh, yes, the south side.

WINGO: That's like today, I think.


WINGO: I think it's still that way today, isn't it?

CARTER: Well, uh, the colored people are scattered all over now.

WINGO: More so than they were then?


CARTER: Oh yeah, mm-hmm. My father was here when he was a boy, so he knew all about Ypsilanti [ ]. He had a brother lived down on Adams and, and, right back of the Baptist Church, [ ] [corner of Adams and…]

WINGO: Oh, is that the Charlie Starks you were-


WINGO: Okay.

CARTER: And, uh, we were over on Forest Avenue, he found a nice house over there and he liked it, so that's where we [moved].


CARTER: Went to the 4th ward school, 5th ward school, high school, then Eastern Michigan.

WINGO: What was your major? What did you graduate with, what kind of degree?

CARTER: Um, jus-

WINGO: Like-

CARTER: just graduated.

WINGO: Oh, general?

CARTER: Mh-hmm. Then I, uh, Dr. Dickerson had a, kind of a little hospital in 18:00his house. He lived down on the corner of Cross and Washington. [ ] a pretty good-sized house. And he, uh, [ ]…I had done some work at the hospital in Ann Arbor in nursing, and so I worked for him [until he passed].

WINGO: When you went to Eastern, did you take classes on nursing?


WINGO: Oh, [ ]. And why was, were there anyone in your family, like your father, or anyone who was in the, in any of the wars? Any of them go to war?

CARTER: I don't think so.

WINGO: No? Oh okay. You, uh, you wouldn't have any-

CARTER: There’s a sister and a brother, there were just three in our family.

WINGO: Mm-hmm.

CARTER: [My brother lives in Indianapolis] and my sister lives down the street.


WINGO: Your mother lives there now?

CARTER: My sister.


CARTER: My mother's been dead a long time.

WINGO: You wouldn't have a photo album, would you? That you could show me, your family, any pictures?

CARTER: Um [long pause]


CARTER: and this is my sister's [two daughters].

WINGO: This is an old picture.

CARTER: Well, that's my mother's brother. He used to live, worked on the train and lived in Chicago. And this is my sister's son.


WINGO: Who is-

CARTER: My sister's, uh, daughter’s.

WINGO: What's this one, this is a nice picture from way back.

CARTER: This little picture?

WINGO: Mm-hmm.

CARTER: Well, I don’t think I can tell you just who that is.

WINGO: [Looks like it’s from way back]. [ ]


WINGO: [Oh! Pretty].


CARTER: Excuse me just a second.

WINGO: Uh-huh.


WINGO: I wonder how they got in here [ ].



WINGO: [ ] Your brother [ ]


WINGO: [No?]

CARTER: It might have been, uh, it’s a relative. It might have been my brother’s child, I don't know. [ ] Isn’t that sweet?

WINGO: [Mm-hmm]. How did, did someone give this to you?

CARTER: I guess they must have or I wouldn’t of had it. [Laughs]

WINGO: [Laughs] You make a good point there! [Laughs]

CARTER: [Laughs]

WINGO: We'd like it if we can have copies of these somehow, to put in the museum, and then give these back to you, we would really like it. Maybe we could, someone could have them run off or something?

CARTER: This is my niece's son there.

WINGO: This one? Handsome.

CARTER: Mh-hmm. And this is his sister, his sister’s [ ]. And this is my 22:00mother's brother.

WINGO: You could tell how the child styles of clothing have changed.

CARTER: Oh yeah, [he lived in Chicago and worked on the railroad].

WINGO: [ ] [Who is] this cute little [young man]?

CARTER: Uh, that’s my [ ] [little brother] [ ] [doesn’t have any name on it].

WINGO: No. [ ] [These are nice].


CARTER: And this was my, uh, mother's, um, brother’s son's wife.



CARTER: [ ] this is just a little picture of this. [ ] But isn’t it sweet? [Laughs]

WINGO: He’s cute! [Laughs]

CARTER: I think it’s just darling as he can be.

WINGO: He is!

CARTER: Maybe you can read that?

WINGO: Brian Chester [Noland], parents Ron and [ ]. Are they related to you?

CARTER: This? No.

WINGO: No? Ah, cute little picture.

CARTER: See, I know a lot of people, I used to nurse. [ ].

WINGO: Ooh, is this an old Bible? This one here, maybe, is that an old family Bible, maybe? This one,


WINGO: it looks really old. Maybe. Let's see, any names? Sometimes in the beginning they have information.

CARTER: Mm-hmm.



WINGO: Was this someone in your family’s?

CARTER: Yeah I think so, I think this is one my mother had.

WINGO: Nice, King James. This seems like a nice little old book, too. This is a Bible too, this one is, looks... "Martha Starks." Who is that?

CARTER: That’s my sister.

WINGO: Ohh. Yes, this one, let's see.


WINGO: "Printed in 1887." Yes, it's old.


WINGO: Let's see what that one says.



WINGO: What's this name? S-e, can't make it out. [Swellnee]? This one,


WINGO: this one was printed in 1890. So, you kept these a long time.

CARTER: Well, it has [ ]

WINGO: [Right.] [ ] […very nice].

CARTER: [ ].

WINGO: Who is this? This family?

CARTER: This is, uh, Mr. Carter's daughter, and this is Mr. Carter.

WINGO: Uh-huh.

CARTER: And this is his daughter,

WINGO: Mm-hmm.

CARTER: and this is her son, and these are his children.


CARTER: Two boys and a girl. And the girl is in Australia, she dances.


WINGO: Really?!

CARTER: Mh-hmm.

WINGO: How old is she? She looks young here, this must be an older picture.

CARTER: Yeah, mh-hmm.

WINGO: Dances, huh? It's just a dance professionally?

CARTER: Yes. Mm-hmm.

WINGO: Australia, a really nice place.




WINGO: All antiques, huh? Are these [ ]?



WINGO: What about this thing?

CARTER: I made that in school.

WINGO: Really? Oh. You made this?

CARTER: [I think my name’s on the bottom of it].

WINGO: Sure is. You made this, was this in, in college maybe?

CARTER: [I think that was high school].

WINGO: Oh my goodness, this is the type of thing we'd love to put in the museum.

CARTER: Mh-hmm.

WINGO: Everyone said [ ]

CARTER: Mm-hmm.



WINGO: [ ] Do you think maybe one time, um, someone could, could come and maybe have some copies of your pictures made, to put into the museum, or borrow some of these to put in? [ ] you think that may be possible?


CARTER: My uncle sent it to my mother. He used to live in Chicago and he worked on the trains.

WINGO: [ ] What is this big ball? [Gigantic golf ball].



WINGO: [ ] […keep it away from little children].

CARTER: [ ] You know you get so much stuff, you don't know just where you have got it.

WINGO: A lot of memories in here. [LONG PAUSE]. A lot of nice things here, what about this? These over here, these vases?


WINGO: What about these vases and this lamp?

CARTER: They're just old.

WINGO: Any of them-

CARTER: I made that in school.

WINGO: Yeah? [ ]

CARTER: Mm-hmm.

WINGO: 1917. What about, [ ] standing here from that long?



WINGO: Still standing [ ]


WINGO: [ ]…From the beach or something. Did you make this one, too?

CARTER: No, [ ]

WINGO: Yours is just as nice [ ] [Yours is really nice]. [ ] Lamp?


WINGO: This lamp.


WINGO: Was it given to you by someone in your family?


WINGO: Like your father [ ]

CARTER: [ ] that is older than I am.

WINGO: Really!

CARTER: Or as old.

WINGO: Oh my goodness, this looks like it's in good shape.

CARTER: Mh-hmm.

WINGO: You take good care of these things.

CARTER: And a lot of nice things in here that are antique antiques.

WINGO: [Laughs] Antique antiques. This china's probably old.



WINGO: [ ] this a silver set?

CARTER: Mh-hmm.

WINGO: [ ]. You've had that a while?

CARTER: A long while, a long, long while. There's nothing in here [that’s very new], very little, most everything's quite old.

WINGO: You ever use this lamp?




WINGO: Ooh, what's this, this book?

CARTER: That's old.

WINGO: Ohh. Let's see what this has in it. "114 years old," huh. I wonder when that was, when that was written, maybe even older now.


WINGO: It's an English book, is this one of the books that you used when you were in elementary school, maybe?



CARTER: It's older, it's before I come in.

WINGO: [Laughs] Well, if it's 114 years old, I guess it would be. 1866.

CARTER: I think that was one that Mama had.

WINGO: Oh my goodness. This must be her writing in it. Nouns. This is really, 33:00you kept these things in good condition.

CARTER: Well, if you're gonna have something, if you don't take care of it, [might as well not have it]. [Laughs]

WINGO: [Laughs] You have a point there! Oh boy, this is a real treasure, I'd love to have something like this, put on display, people can see it [ ]. [ ] go through your things and talk about them [ ], it's so nice!

CARTER: [Laughs]

WINGO: Oh my goodness. Okay, well that's really about all, except for any stories that you may have behind some these pictures, or something?

CARTER: [Laughs]

WINGO: Well, that's about it. Well, it's been great talking to you, I really 34:00enjoyed it. I'd like to come back and just visit you.

CARTER: Well, if you want to sometime.

WINGO: Oh, I'd love to.

CARTER: Call before you come, because

WINGO: Okay.

CARTER: I'm gone a lot. I go up to the lunch program, they take us out, they take us out and bring us back.

WINGO: Where is that, what program is this a part of?

CARTER: Well, for senior citizens.

WINGO: Mh-hmm.

CARTER: And we go down to the, um, high-rise in the Chidester Street, the bus takes you down there. And visit, we have different things, and there's different things that's brought out for us to realize and know about, that's going on now. And, uh, then the bus takes us, brings us back home.

WINGO: That's good, I'm glad you're not just sitting around.

CARTER: Well, it's nice because you see people you haven't seen a long time, some of them.

WINGO: [ ]

CARTER: Yeah, some of them you see all the time.

WINGO: Oh, so some your friends are in there?


CARTER: Oh yes, uh-huh, people that you've known a long time.

WINGO: That you've grown up with?

CARTER: Mh-hmm.

WINGO: That must be really nice.

CARTER: It is, it's very nice.

WINGO: I’m glad.

CARTER: Mm-hmm.

WINGO: Okay, well, you want me to walk to the store with you, maybe you need somebody to help you carry something back?

CARTER: Oh, I ain't gonna get that much. [Laughs]

WINGO: [Laughs] Okay, well it was really nice talking to you

CARTER: Nice talking to you.

WINGO: and I hope I can come back, too.

CARTER: Now what is your name?

WINGO: Esther Wingo.

CARTER: Wingo?

WINGO: Wait, I don't have, I don’t think I have any relatives up here, I live in New Jersey.

CARTER: Well, where were you born?

WINGO: In New Jersey.

CARTER: New Jersey? Oh, well how do you like this climate up here?

WINGO: Well, I'm kind of used to it [ ]

CARTER: We haven't had a bad winter.

WINGO: No, but I think the worst I've seen was in 1977, when the, when there was a whole lot of snow.

CARTER: Mh-hmm.

WINGO: Got a few days off school.

CARTER: Oh, you've been here quite a while. You went to Eastern Michigan?

WINGO: Right, I'm still there now.

CARTER: Oh, you're going to Eastern Michigan now?

WINGO: Mh-hmm.

CARTER: Oh, that's a good school, that's where I finished college.


WINGO: [ ]

CARTER: I took a nursing course, and I worked for the doctor here,

WINGO: Mm-hmm.

CARTER: and he died. Then I went to Ann Arbor and worked in the hospital there.

WINGO: Eastern wasn't like it is now, is it?


WINGO: How is Eastern then?

CARTER: Eastern was nice.

WINGO: Was it a high school and a college together, or what?

CARTER: No, it was just the college. We finished high school, then we went there.

WINGO: Hmm. Okay, well-

CARTER: Then I, uh, worked with this doctor for a long time. After he died, I went to Ann Arbor and worked in the hospital there. Then my mother got sick, and I had to go, quit and go home and take care of her.

WINGO: So there were a lot of jobs open [ ]?

CARTER: Well, for the people that knew what they was doing.

WINGO: Oh, there wasn't any race discrimination? [Not much?].

CARTER: Not, no.

WINGO: So you didn't have a hard time finding a job, or?

CARTER: No, I didn't have any trouble. Of course, I lived in a white neighborhood, and went to school with a lot of white people, and that makes a 37:00lot of difference too.

WINGO: Okay, well thank you for your time.

CARTER: You’re welcome.


WINGO: What's this picture right here, with all these people in it, are you in there?

CARTER: Well, I’d have to take a [ ] [church picture].

0:00 - The Starks family comes to Ypsilanti from Canada

Play segment Segment link

Partial Transcript: WINGO: My identification, it says, "The bearer of this note Esther Wingo," that's me, "has been employed by me," who's Mr. Marshall, have you spoke with him?


WINGO: Okay. As an interview for the above named project. And the project is an Afro-American History project.

Segment Synopsis: After a long introduction and technical discussion, Mrs. Ester Wingo asks Viola Carter about her family, the Starks, and how they came to Ypsilanti to live in 1904.

Keywords: Adams Street; Charles Starks; Detroit, Michigan; Dr. John Dickerson; Ester Wingo; Glenna Starks, Second Baptist Church; Martha Starks Neely; Mary Louise Foley; River Street and Forest Street; South Huron Street; University of Michigan Hospital; Vida Vest; Viola Starks Carter; Walkerville, Ontario; Ypsilanti High School; Ypsilanti Historical Society; Ypsilanti, Michigan

Subjects: African American Families. Canada--Emigration and immigration. United States--Emigration and immigration.

Hyperlink: A webpage with more information on the Starks family.

13:22 - Childhood memories and family memorabilia

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Partial Transcript: WINGO: Um, when, when you were growing up, what was it like, what was the social life like, what type of things did you do, or what kind of groups were you in, …[ ]?

CARTER: Well, we went to, uh, [ ] school and finished there, and went to Woodruff School and finished there, and then we went to high school. After we finished high school, we went to Eastern Michigan

Segment Synopsis: Mrs. Wingo asks Viola about growing up in Ypsilanti and her memories of school. Mr.s Carter describes growing up on Forest Avenue and her education in the Ypsilanti Public Schools. Together, Mrs. Carter and Mrs. Wingo spend the rest of the interview looking at old photos, books and family memorabilia.

Keywords: Adams Street; Arthur Carter; Charles Starks; Chidester Street; Fourth Ward School; John Dickerson; Michigan State Normal College; Prospect School; Russell Starks; Second Baptist Church; Vincent Starks; Woodruff School; Ypsilanti High School; Ypsilanti, Michigan

Subjects: African Americans--Michigan--Ypsilanti--History. African Americans--Education--History--20th century.

Hyperlink: Photo of Viola's uncle Charles Starks' home one Adams Street.
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